The Bent Pyramid is an ancient Egyptian pyramid located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur. Approximately 40 kilometers (25 mi) south of Cairo, built under the Old Kingdom  Pharaoh Sneferu (c. 2600 BC). A unique example of early pyramid development in Egypt.

It is one of the wonder constructions from Ancient Egypt . Sneferu built it after meidum pyramid and it was his second pyramid

The Bent pyramid

Architecture of the bent pyramid

The Bent Pyramid rises from the desert at a 54-degree inclination, but the top section (above 47 metres [154 ft]) is built at the shallower angle of 43 degrees, lending the pyramid a visibly ‘bent’ appearance.

Archaeologists now believe that the Bent Pyramid represents a transitional form between step-sided and smooth-sided pyramids. Due to the steepness of the original angle of inclination the structure may have begun to show signs of instability during construction, forcing the builders to adopt a shallower angle to avert the structure’s collapse. This theory appears to be borne out by the fact that the adjacent Red pyramid built immediately afterwards by the Sneferu . Engineers constructed it at an angle of 43 degrees from its base. The initial construction’s angle would take long because Sneferu’s death was nearing, so the builders changed the angle to complete it .

In 1974, Kurt Mendelssohn suggested the change of the angle to make stability precaution in reaction to a catastrophic collapse of the meidum pyramid while it was still under construction. The reason why Sneferu abandoned the meidum Pyramid and its Step Pyramid may have been a change in ideology.

History of the bent pyramid

The Bent pyramid is unique amongst the ninety pyramids in Egypt. Egyptians polished limestone outer casing which remains largely intact. British structural engineer Peter James attributes this to larger clearances between the parts of the casing than used in later pyramids; these imperfections would work as expansion joints and prevent the successive destruction of the outer casing by thermal attraction

The ancient formal name of the Bent Pyramid is (The)-Southern-Shining-Pyramid, or Sneferu-(is)-Shining-in-the-South. In July 2019, Egypt decided to open it for tourism for the first time since 1965. Tourists are able to reach two 4600-year-old chambers through a 79-metre (259 ft) narrow tunnel built from the northern entrance of the pyramid. The 18-metre-high (59 ft) “side pyramid”, people assumed sneferu built it for his wife will also be accessible. The Government opened it the first time to the public since its excavation in 1956