Usermaatre Meryamun Ramesses III (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the second Pharoah of the Twenteith Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.
His long reign saw the decline of Egyptian political and economic power. Linked to a series of invasions and internal economic problems that also plagued pharaohs before him. This coincided with a decline in the cultural sphere of Ancient Egypt.
However, his successful defense was able to slow down the decline. Although it still meant that his successors would have a weaker military. He led the way by defeating the invaders known as “the Sea peoples”, who had caused destruction in other civilizations and empires. He was able to save Egypt from collapsing at the time when many other empires fell during the Late Bronze Age; however, the damage of the invasions took a toll on Egypt.
Rameses III constructed one of the largest mortuary temples of western Thebes, now-called Medinet Habu.
In fact, Ramesses III was the son of Setnakhte and Tiy-merenese. He was assassinated in the Hream conpiracy led by his secondary wife Tiye and her eldest son Pentawere. This would ultimately cause a succession crisis which would further accelerate the decline of Ancient Egypt. He was succeeded by his son Ramesses IV, although many of his other sons would rule later.
Ramesses’ two main names transliterate as wsr-mꜢʿt-rʿ–mry-ỉmn rʿ-ms-s–ḥḳꜢ-ỉwnw. They are normally realised as Usermaatre-Meryamun Rameses-Heqaiunu, meaning “The Ma’at of Ra is strong, Beloved of Amun, Born of Ra, Ruler of Heliopolis”.
Ramesses III believes to be a king from March 1186 to April 1155 BC. This is based on his known accession date of I Shemu day 26. And his death on Year 32 III Shemu day 15, for a reign of 31 years, 1 month and 19 days. Alternative dates for his reign are 1187–1156 BC.