Egypt from Commerce Side

Egypt is a very massive commercial center in the world due to its special location in the world where most of the international commerce cross Egypt from the Suez channel which is considered to be the shortest international commercial way that links the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea, in Addition to Egypt having many ports that facilitate global commerce. Egypt is also involved in every major industrial and commercial activity especially tourism.Egypt was seen as a global centre of knowledge, science, and development throughout antiquity. Today, it stands in an economically advantageous location, straddling the Mediterranean and the Red seas, and at the confluence of Europe, Africa and Asia. The Suez Canal, completed in 1869, is one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes. Moreover, Egypt’s population is large and rapidly expanding, at a rate around 2.5% a year. It is seen as one of the country’s greatest economic assets if it can be harnessed by effective public policy. Moreover, the country is also characterised by a bottom-heavy population pyramid. The large youth cohort helps to limit the overall burden on the health care system, as evidenced by the relatively successful navigation of the Covid-19 pandemic. This chapter contains a viewpoint with President Abdel Fattah El Sisi of Egypt.

Ancient Egyptian trade

Epipaleolithic Natufians carried parthenocarpic figs from Africa to the southeastern corner of the Fertile Crescent, c. 10,000 BCE. Later migrations out of the Fertile Crescent would carry early agricultural practices to neighboring regions—westward to Europe and North Africa, northward to Crimea, and eastward to Mongolia. The ancient people of the Sahara imported domesticated animals from Asia between 6000 and 4000 BCE. In Nabta Playa by the end of the 7th millennium BCE, prehistoric Egyptians had imported goats and sheep from Southwest Asia.

Foreign artifacts dating to the 5th millennium BCE in the Badarian culture in Egypt indicate contact with distant Syria. In predynastic Egypt, by the beginning of the 4th millennium BCE, ancient Egyptians in Maadi were importing pottery as well as construction ideas from Canaan.

By the 4th millennium BCE shipping was well established, and the donkey and possibly the dromedary had been domesticated. Domestication of the Bactrian camel and use of the horse for transport then followed. Charcoal samples found in the tombs of Nekhen, which were dated to the Naqada I and II periods, have been identified as cedar from Lebanon. Predynastic Egyptians of the Naqada I period also imported obsidian from Ethiopia, used to shape blades and other objects from flakes. The Naqadans traded with Nubia to the south, the oases of the western desert to the west, and the cultures of the eastern Mediterranean to the east.

Pottery and other artifacts from the Levant that date to the Naqadan era have been found in ancient Egypt. Egyptian artifacts dating to this era have been found in Canaan and other regions of the Near East, including Tell Brak and Uruk and Susa in Mesopotamia.

By the second half of the 4th millennium BCE, the gemstone lapis lazuli was being traded from its only known source in the ancient world—Badakhshan, in what is now northeastern Afghanistan—as far as Mesopotamia and Egypt.