Alexandria (/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə, ˈzɑːn-/ AL-ig-ZA(H)N-dree-ə; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια) is the second largest city in Egypt, and the largest city on the Mediterranean coast. Founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great, Alexandria grew rapidly and became a major centre of Hellenic civilisation, eventually replacing Memphis, in present-day Greater Cairo, as Egypt’s capital. Called the “Bride of the Mediterranean” internationally, Alexandria is a popular tourist destination and an important industrial centre due to its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez.

The city extends about 40 km (25 mi) along the northern coast of Egypt, and is the largest city on the Mediterranean, the second-largest in Egypt (after Cairo), the fourth-largest city in the Arab world, the ninth-largest city in Africa, and the ninth-largest urban area in Africa.

Alexandria was the intellectual and cultural centre of the ancient Mediterranean for much of the Hellenistic age and late antiquity. It was at one time the largest city in the ancient world before being eventually overtaken by Rome.

Geography of Alexandria city

Satellite image of Alexandria and other cities show its surrounding coastal plain

Alexandria is located in the country of Egypt, on the southern coast of the Mediterranean. It is in the Far West Nile delta area. Its a densely populated city, its core areas belie its large administrative area.






Alexander the Great was the initiator for building up Alexandria in 332 BC. The construction process started by filling part of the waterway separating the island of Pharos from a small village “Rakoda” . Alexander the Great and his successors made Alexandria the capital of Egypt for almost a thousand years. Lastly, the Muslim conquest of Egypt by Amr Ibn Al Aas in 641 AC. Throughout history, Alexandria was famous for many attractions such as the ancient Library of Alexandria, which included over 700,000 volumes, and the Lighthouse, which was one of the Seven Wonders due to its significant height of nearly 35 meters. The Lighthouse had been there until a powerful earthquake destroyed it in 1307.