Avaris, also known as Pi-Ramesses, was one of the most important ancient cities in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period and the New Kingdom. It was located in the eastern delta of the Nile river, near the modern city of Tell el-Daba, and it served as the capital of Egypt for several dynasties. There are a few theories about the origins of Avaris. Some scholars believe that it was established by the Hyksos, a group of non-Egyptian people who invaded and conquered Lower Egypt in the 17th century BCE. Others argue that Avaris existed before the Hyksos arrived and that they simply took over the city and made it their own.

Regardless of its origins, Avaris became a prosperous and cosmopolitan city during the Hyksos period. It was a hub of trade and commerce, and it attracted people from all over Egypt and beyond. The city was known for its wealth, its luxurious palaces and temples, and its skilled artisans who produced fine pottery, metalwork, and textiles. After the Hyksos were defeated by the pharaoh Ahmose I, Avaris became the capital of the New Kingdom. It was renamed Pi-Ramesses in honor of the pharaoh Ramesses II, who expanded and embellished the city during his reign. Pi-Ramesses became one of the largest cities in the world, with a population of over 300,000 people.

The city was a center of religious and cultural life, with numerous temples dedicated to various gods and goddesses. The most famous of these was the temple of Ptah, the patron deity of Avaris, which was renowned for its beauty and grandeur. Pi-Ramesses was also an important military and political center. The pharaohs stationed their armies there and used it as a base to launch military campaigns against foreign enemies. Many important political decisions were made in Avaris, and the rulers of Egypt frequently held court there. However, despite its power and influence, Avaris eventually declined and was abandoned. The causes of its decline are not entirely clear, but some scholars suggest that environmental factors, such as rising sea levels and droughts, may have played a role.

Today, Avaris is mostly in ruins, and its once-great monuments and buildings are covered in sand and dust. However, archaeologists continue to study the city and its remains, and they hope to uncover more of its secrets in the coming years.