Fustat, which was also known as Al-Fustat, is one of the oldest capital cities of Egypt. It was founded in the 7th century after the Islamic conquest of Egypt by the Arab general Amr ibn al-As. Fustat was a significant city in the early Islamic world as it was the first Arab-Muslim capital in Egypt and served as a center for administration, trade, and religion.

The city was located in the south of present-day Cairo, and its name comes from the Arabic word “fostat,” meaning “tent encampment.” Historically, it was a strategic location as it was situated on the eastern bank of the Nile River, which facilitated commerce and communication with the other Arab-Muslim territories, and it was also close to the Pyramids of Giza.

During its peak in the 9th and 10th centuries, Fustat consisted of two principal neighborhoods, namely Fustat al-Qadima (Old Fustat) and Fustat al-Jadida (New Fustat). The former was occupied by the newly arriving Arab-Muslim immigrants, while the latter was inhabited by the Coptic and Greek Christians, Jews, and indigenous Egyptians who were allowed to remain in the area after the Arab-Muslim conquest.

Fustat was a melting pot of different cultures, religions, and ethnicities, and it was a hub of intellectual, scientific, and artistic activities. Islamic scholars and jurists, such as Imam Al-Shafi’i and Ibn Hanbal, lived and worked in the city, and it was a center for the production of pottery, textiles, glassware, and metalwork.

However, Fustat’s glory days as a capital city did not last long. In the 10th century, the Fatimid dynasty established a new capital, Cairo, to the north of Fustat. This new city grew rapidly and eventually eclipsed Fustat in importance and size. As a result, Fustat gradually declined and was eventually abandoned in the 12th century. Today,

all that remains of the once-great city are scattered ruins and artifacts that provide a glimpse into its rich history and culture.