Giza (/ˈɡzə/; sometimes spelled Gizah, Gizeh, Geeza, Jiza; Arabic: الجيزةromanized: al-Jīzahpronounced [æˈjiːzæ]Egyptian Arabic: الجيزة el-Gīza [elˈgiːzæ]) is the third-largest city in Egypt by area after Cairo and Alexandria; and fourth-largest city in Africa by population after Kinshasa, Lagos and Cairo. It is the capital of Giza Governorate with a total population of 4,872,448 in the 2017 census.It is located on the west bank of the Nile opposite central Cairo and is a part of the Greater Cairo metropolis. Giza lies less than 30 km (18.64 mi) north of Memphis (Men-nefer, today the village of Mit Rahina), which was the capital city of the unified Egyptian state during the reign of pharaoh Narmer, roughly 3100 BC. Giza is most famous as the location of the Giza Plateau, the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world, including a complex of ancient Egyptian royal mortuary and sacred structures, including the Great Sphinx, the Great Pyramid of Giza, and a number of other large pyramids and temples. Giza has always been a focal point in Egypt’s history due to its location close to Memphis, the ancient pharaonic capital of the Old Kingdom.

Districts and population the city of Giza is the capital of the Giza Governorate and is located near the northeast border of this governorate.

2017 Population and administrative divisions

Giza city is a municipal division and capital of Giza governorate with an appointed city head.It comprises nine districts (ahya‘, singl. hayy) and five new towns (mudun jadidah) administered by the New Urban Communities Authority (NUCA).

The districts/qisms fully subsume to the city head and according to the 2017 census had 4,872,448 residents.

Geography & history Giza’s most famous landform and archaeological site, the Giza Plateau, holds some major monuments of Egyptian history, and is home to the Great Sphinx. Once thriving with the Nile that flowed right into the Giza Plateau, the pyramids of Giza were built overlooking the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis, across the river from modern day Cairo. The Great Pyramid of Giza at one time was advocated (1884) as the location for the Prime Meridian, a reference point used for determining a base longitude.