Itjtawy, the ancient capital of Egypt, was established in the 20th century BC during the Middle Kingdom period. It was strategically located near the Faiyum region, which was considered an important source of agricultural wealth and contributed to the economic prosperity of the city. The city was founded by the Pharaoh Amenemhat I and served as the capital of Egypt for about 100 years. It was a major administrative and cultural center during its heyday and was home to many impressive structures, including the royal palace, temples, and administrative buildings.

One of the most notable features of Itjtawy was its impressive royal palace, which was built on a massive scale and housed the various departments of the government. The palace was believed to have been one of the largest structures in the ancient world, and it was adorned with beautiful frescoes and sculptures that celebrated the glory and achievements of the pharaohs. In addition to the palace, Itjtawy was home to several impressive temples that were dedicated to the gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt. These temples were not only centers of religious worship but also served as administrative centers where important decisions were made.

Despite its impressive size and grandeur, Itjtawy was abandoned as a capital city in favor of Thebes during the 12th Dynasty. Its decline may have been due to natural disasters such as floods that damaged the city’s infrastructure. However, the city continued to be an important cultural and administrative center for several years after its abandonment.


very little remains of Itjtawy, and the city has largely been forgotten by history. Nevertheless, its legacy lives on in the archaeological remains that have been discovered at the site, which continue to provide valuable insights into ancient Egyptian history and culture.