Samannud was the capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom (Third Dynasty) around 2686-2613 BC. It was known to the ancient Egyptians as “Tjebu” or “Djedu,” and it served as an important center for the worship of the god Ptah.

The city was located in the Delta region of Egypt, near the modern city of Tanta, and was known for its flourishing economy based on agriculture, trade, and craftsmanship. The fertile land allowed for the cultivation of crops such as wheat, barley, and flax, while the Nile River served as a vital trade route, connecting Samannud to other important cities in Egypt.

One of the most distinctive features of Samannud was its temple dedicated to Ptah, the god of creation, craftsmen, and architects. The temple was built in the early Old Kingdom, and it was covered in stunning reliefs and carvings depicting the god Ptah, his consort, and their children. The temple complex also included a palace and a residence for the priests.

Samannud was also known for its skilled craftsmen who produced a variety of luxury goods such as jewelry, pottery, and textiles. The products were traded throughout Egypt and beyond, which contributed to the city’s wealth. In addition to its economic and religious importance, Samannud played a significant role in the political history of ancient Egypt. During the Old Kingdom, it was the site of a rebellion against the central government by local governors, which led to the collapse of the Old Kingdom and the rise of the First Intermediate Period.


little remains of the ancient city of Samannud, except for a few ruins of the temple and some archaeological sites. But its legacy lives on through its important role in the history of Egypt and its contributions to the country’s economy, religion, and politics.