The Energy in Ancient Egypt
The energy sources used in ancient Egypt varied depending on the era and geographical location. The early dynastic period, which lasted from approximately 3100 BC to 2686 BC, did not have access to any major energy sources. The Egyptians relied on river reeds, dried dung, and wood to fuel their daily lives.
As the civilization grew, so did their need for more efficient energy sources. During the Old Kingdom (2686 BC to 2181 BC), the Egyptians began using coal and oil for their lamps. They also relied on animal-driven mills to grind grain for bread.
During the Middle Kingdom (2055 BC to 1650 BC), the Egyptians developed new methods of harnessing wind energy. They used large sails to catch the wind and power boats up and down the Nile River. They also began using water wheels, or sakias, to irrigate their fields and pump water out of the Nile.
By the New Kingdom (1550 BC to 1070 BC), the Egyptians had become masters of hydraulic engineering. They built elaborate canal systems to control the flow of water and distribute it evenly throughout the fields. They also constructed enormous reservoirs to store water for irrigation during times of drought.
one of the most impressive examples of ancient Egyptian hydraulic engineering
is the Temple of Karnak. It was built over a period of 2,000 years and covers an area of approximately 100 hectares. Its construction required the movement of huge blocks of stone, which were transported using sledges pulled by teams of workers. The workers were often fed a diet of beer and bread to keep up their strength.
the energy sources used in ancient Egypt evolved over time to meet the growing needs of a complex civilization. The Egyptians adapted to their environment and developed innovative methods for harnessing wind and water power. Their legacy lives on in the impressive structures they built using nothing more than human muscle power.