The Pharaohs  is the vernacular term often used for the monarchs of ancient Egypt, who ruled from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BC) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BC. However, regardless of gender, “king” was the term used most frequently by the ancient Egyptians for their monarchs through the middle of the Eighteenth Dynasty during the New Kingdom. The earliest confirmed instances of “pharaoh” used contemporaneously for a ruler were a letter to Akhenaten (reigned c. 1353–1336 BC) or an inscription possibly referring to  Thutmose III(c. 1479–1425 BC).

In the early dynasties, ancient Egyptian kings had as many as three titles: the Horus, the Sedge and Bee, and the Two Ladies or Nebty name. The Golden Horus and the nomen and prenomen titles were there later.

In Egyptian society, religon was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the king was as an intermediary between the deities and the people. The king owned all of the land in Egypt, enacted laws, collected taxes, and served as commader – in- cheif of the military.Religiously, the king officiated over religious ceremonies and chose the sites of new temples. The king was responsible for maintaining Maat, or cosmic order, balance, and justice, and part of this included going to war when necessary to defend the country or attacking others. When it was famous that this would contribute to Maat, such as to obtain resources.




In fact, the pharaohs word ultimately derives from the Egyptian compound .It was written with the two  biliteral heiroglyphs pr”house” . It is meaning “great” or “high”. From the Twelfth Dynasty onward. The word appears in a wish formula “Great House. May it Live,Prosper,and be in Health but again only with reference to the royal palace and not a person.