Ancient Egyptian Religion Cosmology is the belief system of the ancient Egyptians about the structure and organization of the universe. According to Egyptian mythology, the universe was divided into two main aspects – the physical world and the spiritual world. The physical world, known as the ‘Duat’, was believed to be the place where the living and the dead coexisted. It was located below the earth’s surface and was divided into twelve regions, each corresponding to an hour of the night. The ‘Duat’ was also home to several mythological beings such as gods, goddesses, demons and spirits. On the other hand, the spiritual world consisted of three main aspects – the sky, earth and underworld. The sky was considered the home of the gods, with the sun god Ra being the most important god of all. The earth was believed to be the physical manifestation of the god of creation, Atum, who shaped the world out of the primordial waters.
The underworld, known as the ‘Duat’, was the realm of the dead. It was believed that the souls of the dead travelled through this realm after death to reach the afterlife. The underworld was also the location of the final judgement of a person’s life, determining whether they would be granted eternal life or not. Another important aspect of ancient Egyptian cosmology was the concept of Ma’at or balance. This concept was central to ancient Egyptian religion and was believed to govern all aspects of the universe. The gods were believed to balance the natural elements of the world to maintain Ma’at. The Pharaohs, who were regarded as divine, were tasked with the responsibility of maintaining balance on earth.
Overall, the ancient Egyptians believed in a complex and interconnected cosmology that was structured around the balance of natural, physical and spiritual elements in the universe.