Damanhur After Ityay al-Bani.dthe next town is (36km) Damanhiar, the principal city of Ba).layrah province. It is the site of the ancient city of Tm.n-Hor, one of the towns dedicated to Horus. Objects from here, including several Hyksos heads, a granite statue base ofcPsamtik II and a black granite naos dedicated by Nectanebo I to Neith, are all in the EM. To the NE runs the H7, crossing the Rosetta branch of the Nile to Dasii.q and on to Kafr al-Shaykh (Rte 44), and the H17 N to al-M~mudiyyah (25km) and from whence as the H20 it follows the W bank of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, passing through DayriiJ (7km) and Idfini (10km), another famous village as it is the other agricultural station  chosen by Egypt as a trademark for tinned agricultural produce (see ROSETTA 689 Qaha, Rte 43). Here there is also a barrage carrying a road to the E bank and the town of Mutii.bis (Rte 44). Beyond Idfina (lOkm) the H20 joins the H18 from Alexandria and turns N to Rosetta (Skm). From Damanhii.r the H7 (which completely crosses the Delta) runs NE crossing the Rosetta branch of the Nile to Dasii.q a.nd on to Kafr al-Shaykh (Rte 44}; the H17 leaves due N to join the Rosetta branch of the Nile beside which it runs through Idfina into Rosetta (see above). NE the Hl continues to (39km) Kafr al-Dawwar and on to (26km) Alexandria.


city, capital of Al-Buḥayrah muḥāfaẓah (governorate) in the western Nile River delta, Lower Egypt. Its name is derived from the ancient Egyptian Timinhor (“City of Horus”) and has historically applied to several centres in Egypt, mostly in the delta. The capital of a Ptolemaic nome, Damanhūr was known as Hermopolis Parva in Hellenistic times. It was first made a provincial capital under Faṭīmid rule (11th century), and in the Middle Ages it prospered as a caravan town on the post road from Cairo to Alexandria. It was severely damaged in 1302 by an earthquake, but in the late 14th century the Mamlūk caliph Barqūq restored its fortifications to thwart Bedouin incursions. Damanhūr is now a major centre of the western delta. It is the hub of a system of narrow-gauge railways transporting the cotton, dates, vegetables, and cereals of the region’s agricultural hinterland. The city has date-packing, potato-processing, cotton-ginning, and textile industries. Damanhūr is served by the Cairo-Alexandria main railway and is an important branch railway, road, and canal junction.