In fact, the Second Intermediate Period dates from 1700 to 1550 BC. It marks a period when ancient Egypt was divided into smaller dynasties for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom. In fact, the Second Intermediate Period includes the 13th through to the 17th dynasties. The concept of a “Second Intermediate Period” originated in the twentieth century by Egyptologists from the United Kingdom.

In fact, it is famous as the period when the Hyksos people of West Asia established the 15th Dynasty and ruled from Avaris, which, according to Manetho’s Aegyptiaca, was founded by a king by the name of Salitis.

End of the Middle Kingdom

In fact, the 12th Dynasty of Egypt came to an end at the end of the 19th century BC with the death of queen Sobekneferu (1806–1802 BC). Significantly, she had no heirs, causing the 12th Dynasty to come to a sudden end, and, with it, the Golden Age of the Middle Kingdom; it was succeeded by the much weaker 13th Dynasty. Retaining the seat of the 12th Dynasty, the 13th Dynasty ruled from Itjtawy (“Seizer-of-the-Two-Lands”) for most of its existence, switching to Thebes in the far south possibly since the reign of Merneferre Ay.

The Second Intermediate Period

The dynasties that ruled during the Second Intermediate Period were the 13th through to the 17th dynasties.

The Second Intermediate Period
c. 1700–1550 BC
The political situation in the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt (c. 1650 – c. 1550 BC).

The political situation in the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt (c. 1650 – c. 1550 BC).
  • Firstly, Itjtawy
    c.1803 – 1677 BC
    13th Dynasty
  • Avaris
    c.1725 – 1535 BC
    14th and 15th Dynasties
  • Thebes
    c.1677 – 1600 BC
    13th, 16th and 17th Dynasties
  • Lastly, Abydos
    c.1650 – 1600 BC
    Abydos Dynasty

Surely, Ancient Egyptian religion
Demonym(s) Egyptians and Hyksos
Government Monarchy
• c. 1701 – c. 1677 BC
Merneferre Ay (first)
• c. 1555 – c. 1550 BC
Kamose (last)
• approximately around the late 13th Dynasty
c. 1700
• The end of the 17th Dynasty of Egypt
1550 BC

Preceded by

Succeeded by
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
New Kingdom of Egypt


In fact, at the end of the Second Intermediate period, the 18th Dynasty came to power in Egypt. The first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, Ahmose, completed expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt and consolidated his rule over the land. With that, Ahmose ushered in a new period of prosperity in Egypt, the New Kingdom.