Southern Delta A. Central Area Leave Cairo by Shubra Misr (Rte 18) and cross the Isma9liyyah Canal into the province of Qaiyubiyyah at Shubra al-Khaymah. After passing an army post and then a police checkpoint the Hl (agricultural road to Alexandria) leaves greater Cairo and runs due N. To the W at (12km) Qalyiib is the road to al-Qanatir al-Khayriyyah (see below) and to the Ethe road to the H3 (see below). N of Qalyiib the Hl passes (12km) Qaha, renowned as its name appears on tins of Egyptian agricultural produce exported throughout the world. The company was formed between the wars and nationalised after the revolution. Branches have now spread throughout Egypt. The fields belonging to the company stretch on both sides of the road but the processing plant is on the E.

Continuing N, the road passes (9km) Tiikh and after 12km reaches Banha, the chief town of the province of Qalyiibiyyah. It is one of the
most important cities in the Delta as it is the focus for all the arterial roads running S from Lower Egypt into Cairo and the Nile Valley.
Known in ancient times as Per Neha, which became Banahu in Coptic times, it was famed for its groves of sycamore fig trees. To the NW is
Tell Abib marking the remains of the Ancient Egyptian city of Hut-hery-ib, Gk Athribis, capital of the 10th name of Lower Egypt and associated with the worship of the black bull. Excavations were undertaken in 1939 by Liverpool University and between
1961-64 by a Polish expedition. Despite extensive damage by the sabakhin,  remains of 18, 19, 25 and 26 Dyn. temples were uncovered. Under the :Romans it was an important town. As with many Delta cities it displayed an orderly plan with two intersecting main roads. In 1924 a cache of 26-30 Dyn. silver ingots and jewellery was discovered (now in EM). Among tombs discovered in the N Section was that of Queen Takhut (wife of Psamtik II). There is also an extensive Greco-Roman cemetery