The Mamluks were a group of slave soldiers who came to power in Egypt in the 13th century. They were originally recruited from Central Asia and were trained as soldiers from a young age. When the Ayyubid dynasty fell, the Mamluks took control of the government and established their own dynasty, which lasted until the 16th century. The Mamluks were famous for their military skills and their ability to maintain control over the country. They were also famous for their cultural and artistic achievements, including the construction of many important buildings and monuments in Cairo, such as the Al-Azhar Mosque and the Mosque of Muhammad Ali. The Mamluks were also famous for their tolerance of religious and cultural diversity, and they allowed the coexistence of different religious and ethnic groups within the country.

Mosque Madrassa of Sultan Hassan (left) along with the later Al Rifa’i Mosque (right) and two Ottoman Mosques (foreground) in Cairo


Despite their success, the Mamluks faced several challenges during their reign. They were constantly threatened by external enemies. Such as the Crusaders and the Mongols, and they also faced internal conflicts and rebellions. The Mamluks were also famous for their lavish lifestyle and their extravagant spending. Which led to economic problems and instability within the country. Despite these challenges, the Mamluks were able to establish a lasting legacy in Egypt and the region. They were famous for their military prowess, their cultural achievements. And their role in maintaining stability and control over the country. Their legacy is living in the country today.