In fact,Wadi Al Rayan is a unique nature protectorate in Faiyum Governorate, Egypt, under the supervision of the (EEAA).

Wadi el Rayan is mentioned in Coptic sources as Pilihēy (Coptic: ⲡⲓⲗⲓϩⲏⲩ, lit‘possessing profit, useful’), a salt lake west of Kalamoun where Samuel the confessor liked to rest.


Waterfalls between upper and lower lakes in the Wadi el-Raiyan (Wadi el-Rayyan), Egypt

In fact,The valley of Wadi Al-Rayan is an area of 1759 km2 . 113 km2 of which are the dominating water body of the Wadi El Rayan lakes. It is located about 65 km southwest of Faiyum city and 80 km west of the Nile River. The Wadi is for man-made lakes. From agricultural drainage which has made a reserve of the two separate Wadi El Rayan Lakes. In fact,The reserve contains a 50.90 km2 upper lake and a 62.00 km2 lower lake, with waterfalls between the two. Among the springs, there are three sulphur springs at the southern side of the lower lake, with extensive mobile sand dunes. Wadi El Rayan Waterfalls are the largest waterfalls in Egypt.

At the south and southeast of the springs is Gabal Manqueer Al Rayan. Where, marine fossils and archeological remains are there. Gabal Madwera, near the lower lake, is widely famous for its extensive dune formations.

In the northwest is Wadi Al Hitan, a protectorate containing fossils of extinct whales.

Flora and fauna

The vegetation is confined to inter-dune areas around springs and at the base of large dunes. The vegetation cover contains  13 species of perennial plants and a few individuals of Calligonum comosum and Zygophyllum album.

In fact,Wadi El Rayan accommodates one of the world’s few remaining populations of the endangered slender horned gazelle. The dorcas gazelle is still in the area in small numbers, while both the fennec fox and ruppell’s fox are scarce. There are 11 species of reptiles, 9 species of mammals. 13 species of resident birds, and 26 species of migrant and vagrant birds.