Ancient Egyptian Inventions in Architecture Ancient Egypt is widely known for its impressive architecture, from the towering pyramids to massive temple complexes and royal tombs. Here are some notable inventions that contributed to Ancient Egyptian architecture: 1. Hieroglyphics: Used as a form of writing, hieroglyphics were used to document and instruct builders in the construction of their structures. The system of hieroglyphics allowed architects to map the placement of stones in huge walls and construct plans of ancient structures such as pyramids and obelisks. 2. Sandstone: Found in abundance in Egypt, sandstone was the material of choice for building. It is naturally resistant to erosion, and its ability to be easily carved allowed for intricate details and designs to be added to buildings. 3. Megaliths: Large stones were placed together without the use of mortar for building purposes. The precise alignment and placement of these megaliths made structures more durable and less susceptible to earthquakes and other environmental factors. 4. The Column: Ancient Egyptians were one of the first civilizations to use columns for support in their architecture. The use of columns allowed for larger and more impressive structures to be built, such as the great hypostyle hall at Karnak. 5. Obelisks: These tall, slender, four-sided monuments were used to mark important events, but also served as architectural declarations of power. Obelisks were engineered with precise angles and were often carved with intricate hieroglyphs. 6. The Arch: Although it was not used extensively in Ancient Egyptian architecture, the arch was still an important invention. Engineers utilized it for underground canals or tunnels and in the creation of doorways that could add strength to the walls. 7. The Cosmetics: Ancient Egyptians used their knowledge of chemistry to create materials for cosmetics such as kohl, a type of eyeliner, and perfume. The use of cosmetics was essential in cleansing the body during embalming and ritual purification, which had a major impact on the construction of tombs and pyramids. 8. Mathematics and Geometry: Egyptian architects developed mathematical and geometric principles that allowed them to calculate the weight and balance of large stone blocks. The use of these principles allowed them to construct massive structures that are still standing today. 9. Solar Calendar: Ancient Egyptians developed one of the most advanced calendars, a solar one, which helped them plan the construction of buildings and monuments. Their understanding of the sun also allowed them to orient their buildings and monuments precisely in relation to the rising and setting sun. 10. Pulley Systems: Ancient Egyptians invented various pulley systems for heavy lifting tasks. These systems were used in the transportation of large stone blocks and in the construction of obelisks and other monumental structures. Overall, Ancient Egypt made significant contributions to architectural history through their innovative designs, materials, and techniques.