History of Ancient Egyptian Mummification The practice of mummification began in Egypt around 2800 BCE. At first, it was only practiced on the pharaohs and elite members of society. However, over time, mummification became available to all who could afford it. The mummification process involved several steps. First, the brain was removed through the nostrils with a special tool. Next, the internal organs such as the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines were removed and placed in canopic jars. The body was then cleaned with spices and wrapped with strips of linen. Amulets were added to the wrappings to protect the body. Finally, the body was placed in a coffin and buried. The preservation of the dead had a profound effect on ancient Egyptian religion. Mummification was an integral part of the rituals for the dead beginning as early as the 2nd dynasty (about 2800 BC). Egyptians saw the preservation of the body after death as an important step to living well in the afterlife. As Egypt gained more prosperity, burial practices became a status symbol for the wealthy as well. This cultural hierarchy led to the creation of elaborate tombs, and more sophisticated methods of embalming. By the 4th dynasty (about 2600 BC) Egyptian embalmers began to achieve “true mummification” through a process of evisceration. Much of this early experimentation with mummification in Egypt is unknown.By utilizing current advancements in technology, scientists have been able to uncover a plethora of new information about the techniques used in mummification. A series of CT scans performed on a 2,400-year-old mummy in 2008 revealed a tool that was left inside the cranial cavity of the skull. The tool was a rod, made of an organic material, that was used to break apart the brain to allow it to drain out of the nose. This discovery helped to dispel the claim within Herodotus’ works that the rod had been a hook made of iron.