Horemheb was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled during the 18th dynasty of the New Kingdom. He came to power in 1319 BC, after the death of the last pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, Tutankhamun. Horemheb was a military commander. And is famous for his successful campaigns against the Nubian kingdoms in the south and the Levant in the north.

Horemheb’s reign marked a significant turning point in Egyptian history. He was the last pharaoh of the 18th dynasty and the first pharaoh of the 19th dynasty. Which would become one of the most powerful and prosperous periods in Egyptian history. Horemheb also oversaw the reorganization of the government and the military. Which had been weakened by years of internal conflict and external threats.

One of Horemheb’s most notable achievements was his successful campaign against the Nubian kingdom of Kush. He led a military expedition to the south. Where he defeated the Kushite king and incorporated the region into the Egyptian Empire. This campaign expanded Egypt’s territory and resources, allowing Horemheb to undertake major building projects and other initiatives to strengthen the state.

Horemheb was also responsible for the reorganization of the government and the military. He centralized power and abolished the privileges of the nobility, which had become corrupt and abusive. He appointed new officials and established new institutions to oversee the administration of the state, including the Office of the Royal Secretary and the Scribal School.

Horemheb’s reforms had a lasting impact on Egyptian history. They established a more efficient and effective system of government, which would be inherited by later pharaohs and continue to shape the country for centuries to come. Horemheb’s legacy is also reflected in his tomb, which is one of the most impressive and well-preserved tombs in the Valley of the Kings.

Detail of a statue of Horemheb, at the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna


Despite his many achievements, Horemheb is often overlooked in the historical record. He was a humble and unassuming pharaoh who did not leave behind a large corpus of inscriptions or monuments. Nevertheless, his reign marked a significant turning point in Egyptian history and laid the foundation for the prosperity and power of the New Kingdom.

Overall, Horemheb was a powerful and influential pharaoh who played a crucial role in the history of ancient Egypt. His military campaigns, government reforms, and architectural projects have left a lasting impact on the country, and his legacy continues to inspire scholars and enthusiasts of ancient history.