Narmer, also famous as Menes, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who is believed to have united Upper and Lower Egypt around 3100 BCE. He was the founder of the First Dynasty and the first pharaoh of a unified Egypt.

Narmer’s name appears on a ceremonial mace head and a carving on a rock at Abydos, which depicts him wearing the double crown of Egypt and holding the symbols of both Upper and Lower Egypt. This carving is considered one of the most important artifacts in Egyptian history and is often referred to as the “Unification Tablet.”

Narmer’s reign marked the beginning of a new era in Egyptian history. Characterized by the establishment of a centralized government. The development of a complex system of writing, religion, and administration. He built several temples and monuments, including the Step Pyramid at Saqqara. Which was the first pyramid in Egypt and a significant step in the development of pyramid architecture.

Narmer was also famous for his military conquests. Which allowed him to expand Egypt’s territory and secure its borders. He is believed to have led campaigns against the nomadic tribes in the eastern desert and the Nile Delta. He also established trade relations with other civilizations in the region.

Despite his many accomplishments, the exact details of Narmer’s life and reign are still a subject of debate among historians. Some scholars believe that he was the first pharaoh of Egypt, while others argue that he was simply the first ruler of a unified Egypt. Nevertheless, Narmer’s legacy as the founder of the First Dynasty and the unifier of Egypt remains undisputed.


The date commonly given for the beginning of Narmer’s reign is c. 3100 BC. Other mainstream estimates, using both the historical method and radiocarbon dating, are in the range c. 3273–2987 BC.