Nebwenenef was High Priest of Amun at the beginning of the reign of Ramesses II during the 19th Dynasty. Prior to that, Nebwenenef had served as High Priest of Anhur and High Priest of Hathor during the reign of Seti I and possibly even earlier.


In his tomb (TT157) a large number of titles recorded as held by Nebwenenef:

  • High Priest of Amun
  • High Priest of Anhur
  • High Priest of Hathor
  • Superintendent of the double treasury of silver and gold (of Amun)
  • Superintendent of the granary
  • Chief of Works and Chief of all the craftsmen in Thebes
  • Superintendent of Prophets of all Gods, to his South (as far) as Heriheramun, and to his North, (as far) as Thinis
  • Noble
  • Count
  • God’s Father
  • Chief of Secrets in heaven, earth and the Netherworld(?)
  • Dignitary for the People
  • Chief of Seers, pure of hands in Thebes
  • Superintendent of the Prophets of South and North Egypt
  • Chief of Secrets in Southern Heliopolis (Thebes)


Fragment of a limestone block showing the cartouche of Ramesses II and the name of Nebwenenef. 19th Dynasty. From Kurna (Qurna), Thebes, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Tomb of Nebwenenef

In fact, Nebwenenef buried in the Theban Tomb TT157 located in Dra’ Abu el-Naga’, part of the Theban Necropolis, on the west bank of the Nile, opposite to Luxor.

Nebwenenef shown in his tomb followed by a fan-bearer appearing before Ramesses II and Queen Nefertari in a palace window. In fact, Nebwenenef appointed as High priest of Amun (year 1 of Rameses II).

Nebwenenef’s wife, named Takhat, is depicted in the tomb. She held the titles of Chief of the Harem of Amun, Sistrum Player of Mut, Chief of the Harem of Hathor and Songstress of Isis the mighty. Nebwenenef had a son Sematawy (II) and a daughter named Hathor. Sematawy (II) succeeded his father as High Priest of Hathor. Hathor held the title of Chief of the Harem of Hathor, Lady of Dendera. A sister of Nebwenenef named Irytnofret also depicted on the tomb.

In the 19th century the tomb was recorded by Lepsius (LD Text iii, p 239).

The tomb had been excavated since 1970 by a team from the University of Pennsylvania under the leadership of Dr. Lanny Bell. Since 2002 the Universities of Heidelberg and Leipzig have joined in the work on Nebwenenef’s tomb.