the Fatimids were an Ismaili Shia dynasty that ruled Egypt from 969 to 1171 CE. They were founded by the Imam al-Mu’izz li-Din Allah, who established the Fatimid Caliphate in North Africa and Syria. The Fatimids were famous for their religious tolerance and their support for the arts and learning. They established the city of Cairo as their capital and made it a center of learning and culture. The Fatimids also built many important buildings and monuments in Cairo, including the Al-Azhar Mosque, the Mosque of Ibn Tulun, and the Qal’at al-Fahl. The Fatimids also established a complex system of administration and taxation, which allowed them to maintain control over the country. They also established a navy, which helped them to control the Mediterranean Sea and trade routes. Despite their efforts to maintain stability and control.

Al Azhar Mosque in Cairo, built during the Fatimids dynasty between 970 and 972


White was the dynastic colour of the Fatimids, in opposition to Abbasid black, while red and yellow banners were with the Fatimid caliph’s person. Green is also cited as their dynastic colour, based on a tradition that the Islamic prophet Muhammad wore a green cloak.


The Fatimids faced several challenges during their reign. They were part of a power struggle with the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad, which weakened their position. They also faced resistance from the Byzantine Empire, which controlled the eastern Mediterranean. The Fatimids were also faced with internal conflicts and rebellions, which weakened their control over the country. Despite these challenges, the Fatimids were able to establish a lasting legacy in Egypt and the region. They were famous for their contributions to science, medicine, and philosophy.