Ancient Egypt Map in the Arab Conquest which began in 639 CE, the country was divided into several regions, each with its own major city and governor. The Arab army initially landed in the Nile Delta region, and from there they gradually conquered Upper and Lower Egypt over the course of several years.
The following is a description of the major regions and cities of Ancient Egypt during the Arab Conquest: 1. Lower Egypt: This region included the Nile Delta area and was ruled from the capital city of Alexandria. The governor of Lower Egypt was Amr Ibn Al-As, who was the first Arab general to enter Egypt. He defeated the Byzantine forces at the Battle of Heliopolis in 640 CE and went on to conquer several other cities in the region, including Memphis and Fayyum. 2. Upper Egypt: This region included the area south of the Nile Delta and was ruled from the city of Fustat (now known as Old Cairo). The governor of Upper Egypt was Abdallah Ibn Saad, who led the Arab forces in the battles against the Byzantine army. He also oversaw the construction of the new city of Al-Fustat, which became a major center of trade and commerce.3. The Nile River: This river served as the backbone of the Ancient Egyptian civilization, and it was vital for both transportation and agriculture. The Arab invaders used the Nile to move troops and supplies throughout the country, and also to irrigate the fertile lands along its banks. 4. The Red Sea Coast: This region was a major center of trade and commerce, with the city of Berenice being one of the most important ports in the ancient world. The Arab conquerors used the Red Sea to establish trade links with Arabia and the rest of the Islamic world. 5. The Western Desert: This region was sparsely populated, but it was still important for its mineral resources, such as gold, silver, and gemstones. The Arab forces established mines in the desert to extract these precious minerals, which were then traded throughout the Islamic world.
Overall, the Arab Conquest of Egypt had a major impact on the country’s culture, language, and religion. The Arab rulers introduced Islamic law and Arabic language, which remain the dominant forces in the country today. Additionally, the Arab conquerors helped to establish the foundations for the Islamic civilization, which spread throughout the world over the centuries.