Egypt Map Under Muhammad Ali during the reign of Muhammad Ali in Egypt (1805-1848), significant changes were made to the country’s map and infrastructure. Muhammad Ali modernized Egypt by introducing various reforms, including the construction of modern roads, canals, and bridges that improved transportation within the country. He also encouraged the cultivation of cotton, which became one of Egypt’s primary exports. Muhammad Ali’s rule also saw the expansion of Egypt’s territory to Sudan and parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Overall, his reign changed the face of Egypt and shaped the country’s future.

Muhammad Ali also encouraged the cultivation of cotton, which became one of Egypt’s principal exports. He introduced new irrigation systems to make farming more productive and encouraged wealthy Egyptians to invest in cotton plantations. By the end of his rule in 1848, Egypt had become the largest cotton producer in the world. Additionally, Muhammad Ali expanded Egypt’s territory to include parts of Sudan and the Arabian Peninsula. He sent military expeditions to Sudan to assert Egypt’s authority over the region, which resulted in the annexation of large parts of South Sudan. Similarly, his forces captured the city of Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula, which brought the holy city of Islam under Egyptian control.

 Arabian campaign Acknowledging the sovereignty of the Ottoman Sultan, and at the commands of the Ottoman Porte, in 1811 Muhammad Ali dispatched an army of 20,000 men (and 2,000 horses) under the command of his son Tusun, a youth of sixteen, against the Saudis in the Ottoman–Saudi War. After a successful advance this force met with a serious repulse at the Battle of Al-Safra and retreated to Yanbu. In the end of the year Tusun, having received reinforcements, again assumed the offensive and captured Medina after a prolonged siege. He next took Jeddah and Mecca, defeating the Saudi beyond the latter and capturing their general.

Overall, the Egypt map under Muhammad Ali was transformed through significant infrastructural changes, territorial expansion, and the growth of the cotton industry, shaping the country’s future.