Egypt Map Under the Ottoman Empire the Ottoman Empire ruled over Egypt from 1517 until 1805 when Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, took control and established his dynasty. During the Ottoman period, Egypt was a province or vilayet, which was governed by a beylerbey (governor-general). The capital of the province was Cairo, which was an important center for trade and commerce. The Ottoman Empire left a significant cultural and architectural legacy in Egypt, including the development of Islamic and Ottoman-style architecture, such as the Blue Mosque and the Citadel of Cairo. The Ottomans also introduced the Copts to the Arabic script, and it became a vital part of the Coptic church’s liturgy. In addition, Ottoman rule saw the development of new political institutions, including the establishment of a legal code based on Islamic law and the introduction of the Council of Notables, which provided an advisory council to the governor-general. The Ottoman Empire divided its territories into provinces or vilayets, and Egypt was no exception. At the height of its power, the Ottoman Empire had around 35 provinces, and Egypt was one of the most important ones. Its capital was Cairo, which was a bustling metropolis with a booming economy, thanks in large part to the region’s fertile agricultural lands and strategic position at the crossroads of major trade routes between Asia, Africa, and Europe. Within Cairo, the city was divided into various districts or neighborhoods, such as the old city of Fatimid Cairo, which was surrounded by a wall and had narrow, winding streets. Other important cities and towns in Egypt during the Ottoman period included Alexandria, Damietta, and Rosetta, among others.

Overall, the map of Egypt during the Ottoman period was characterized by a diverse mix of cultural, religious, and ethnic groups, including Arabs, Copts, Ottomans, Berbers, and others. This diversity was reflected in the region’s architecture, arts, and cuisine, which all blended together to create a unique cultural identity that still persists to this day.