Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسني مبارك‎; 4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian politician and military officer who served as the fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973. In 1975, he was appointed vice president by President Anwar Sadat and assumed the presidency after his assassination in 1981. Mubarak’s presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt’s longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha.Who ruled the country for 43 years from 1805 to 1848.

Less than two weeks after the assassination of President Sadat. Mubarak quickly assumed the presidency in the single-candidate 1981 referendum. And renewed his term through single-candidate referendums in 1987 1993, and 1999. Under United States pressure, Mubarak held the country’s first multi-party election in 2005, which he won. In 1989, he succeeded in reinstating Egypt’s membership in the Arab League. Which had been frozen since the Camp David Accords with Israel and returning the Arab League’s headquarters back to Cairo. He was famous for his supportive stance on the Israeli Palestinian peace process, in addition to his role in the Gulf War. Despite providing stability and reasons for economic growth, his rule was repressive.

Mubarak stepped down during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 after 18 days of demonstrations. On 11 February 2011, then Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that both Mubarak and Suleiman had resigned and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.

Early life and education

Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt. On 2 February 1949, he left the Military Academy and joined the Air Force Academy, gaining his commission as a pilot officer on 13 March 1950 and eventually receiving a bachelor’s degree in aviation sciences.