Ptolemy III, also known as Ptolemy the Great, was a pharaoh of Egypt who ruled from 246 to 222 BCE. He was the second son of Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II and succeeded his older brother, Ptolemy IV. Who died suddenly. Ptolemy III’s reign was marked by military successes, particularly in the Levant. Where he conquered the city of Gaza and expanded Egypt’s territory in the region. He also built a new capital, Cyrene, in Libya to honor his second wife, Berenice.

Ptolemy III was a patron of the arts and commissioned many works of art, including statues, paintings, and sculptures, and was a patron of the poet Callimachus. He also supported the establishment of the Library of Alexandria, which became one of the most important centers of learning in the ancient world. Ptolemy III was also known for his efforts to promote Greek culture in Egypt and for his support of the Greek colony of Cyrene.

Despite his successes, Ptolemy III faced challenges in maintaining control over his kingdom, particularly in the face of rebellions and internal strife. He also faced challenges from outside Egypt, including conflicts with the Seleucid Empire in the Levant and with the Kingdom of Nubia in the south.

Bust of Ptolemy III


Ptolemy III died in 222 BCE, leaving his son, Ptolemy IV, to continue his legacy. Ptolemy IV faced challenges of his own, including conflicts with his stepmother and his own health issues. Despite these challenges, he was able to maintain Egypt’s position as a major power in the ancient world. And continued his father’s efforts to promote Greek culture in Egypt.

Overall, Ptolemy III was a significant figure in ancient Egyptian history. Famous for his military successes, his support of the arts and learning. And his efforts to promote Greek culture in Egypt. His reign was marked by both successes and challenges. But he left a lasting legacy that continued to shape Egypt’s history for centuries to come.